Case Studies

Study Type Study Design Participants HRW Treatment Results Reference
Metabolic Syndrome
To assess whether supplementation with HRW had beneficial effects on the progression of diabetes and insulin resistance in human
Double blind
Placebo controlled
18 men
18 women
58.6 +/- 4.7 yrs
900 ml./day HRW or placebo water (PW)
for 8 weeks; 12 weeks wash-out
period in unlabelled aluminium
pouches of 300 ml.
H2 of 1.2 mg/L
Reduced LDL
Reduced 8-isoprostane
(marker of oxidative stress)
4 of 6 patients:
improved glucose
tolerance and insulin
response to OGTT
Kajiyama et. al
Nutrition Research
Metabolic Syndrome
To examine the effectiveness of HRW in reducing oxidative stress in human with potential metabolic syndrome
Open label (baseline, 4 week, and 8 week) 10 males &
10 females
>40 years old
1.5-2.0 l/day for 8 weeks; by placing
a magnesium stick into drinking water
(with (H2) of 0.55 – 0.65 mM,
Blood: complete blood count, liver
profile, lipid profile, fasting glucose
Urine: 8-OHdG, 8-IsoP, SOD, TBARS
Increase HDL
Decrease total/HDL cholesterol
Decrease TBARS at week 4 & 8
Decrease SOD at week 8
Nakao et. al 2010
Metabolic Syndrome
To characterise the effects of HRW on the content, composition & biological activity of serum lipoproteins on patients with potential Metabolic Syndrome
Open label (pre and post) 12 males & 8 females of 55.8 +/- 10.6 yrs old 0.9 – 1.0 L/day for 10 weeks; by metallic magnesium and natura stone in 500 ml water Blood: lipid profile MDA, TBARS, SOD, PONI, 12-HETE, 13-HODE, prostaglandin, 8-iso-PGF2 alpha TNF-alpha, IL-6 Decrease total cholesterol
Decrease LDL
Decrease MDA
Increase SOD
Decrease 8-iso-PGF2 alpha
Decrease 13-HODE
Song et. at. 2013
Metabolic Syndrome
To characterize the effects of HRW on the content, composition, and biological activity of serum lipoproteins on patients with hypercholesterolemia and their underlying mechanisms
Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Case-control (parallel) 68 patients with hypercholesterolemia of 35 – 60 years old 0.9 L/day (3 x 0.3 L) for 10 weeks; in unlabelled 300 ml aluminium pouch with (H2) of 0.5 – 0.6 mM Blood: lipid profile; MDA, TBARS, SOD, PONI, 12-HETE, 13-HODE, prostaglandin, 8-iso-PGF2alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-6 Decrease total cholesterol
Decrease LDL
Decrease MDA
Increase SOD
Increase PON-1
Decrease TNF-alpha
Song et. al 2015
Metabolic Syndrome
To evaluate the effects of H2 intervention on body composition, hormonal status and mitochondrial function in 10 middle aged overweight women
Randomized Double-blind Placebo controlled Cross-over 10 middle-aged overweight women of 56.4 +/- 12.6 years old and 29.3 +/- kg.m3 Hydrogen generating minerals (46 mg calcium and 40 mg magnesium; supplying approx. 6 ppm of H2/day) for 4 weeks Primary end-point: change in body fat % Blood: complete blood count, lipid profile and glucose Serum: liver function, creatine kinase, lactate, pyruvate and coenzyme Q10 Plasma: leptin, ghrelin & insulin Decrease body fat percentage
Decrease arm fat index
Decrease serum triglycerides
Decrease plasma insulin
Korovljev et. al 2018
Study Type Study Design Participants HRW Treatment Results Reference
Oxidative Stress (OS)
Effect of HRW on oxidative stress, Liver Function, and Viral Load in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)
Randomised Controlled 60 patients with 30 subjects control Mean age 35.8 +/- 12.2 yrs CHB randomly assigned to routine treatment gp & hydrogen treatment gp (1.2L -1.8 L/day; twice daily; for 6 consecutive weeks. Serum oxidative stress, liver function and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA level were detected before and after treatment After treatment, OS remained unchanged in routine treatment gp but markedly improved in hydrogen treatment gp. Liver function improved significantly and HBV DNA level reduced markedly after corresponding treatments Xia, Chunxiang 2013 Clin Trnsl. Sci 2013
Oxidative Stress & Muscle Fatigue in response to acute exercise Double blind Cross-over Placebo controlled 10 soccer players aged 20.9 +/- 1.3 yrs/td> Given 1.5 L HW or placebo water (PW) for one week interval Subject cycle ergometer at 75% maximal O2 up-take (VO2) for 30 min Oxidative stress marker & creatine kinase measured HW prevented elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise Peak torque of PW decreased during isokinetic knee extension, imply muscle fatigue but peak torque of HW did not decrease at early phase No sig change in blood oxidative injury markers after exercise Aoki et. al 2012 Med Gas Res.
Rheumatoid arthritis Open-label (both researcher & participant knows the treatment the participant is receiving) 20 patients with RA Given 530 ml. HW (4/5 ppm) everyday for 4 wks; 4 wks washed out drink another 4 wks 8-OHdG (oxidative stress marker) & disease activity (DAS28, using CRP, C- reactive protein) measured at the end of each 4 wk period Urinary 8-OHdG reduced DAS 28 also decreased All 5 patients with early RA (<12 mth) achieved remission and 4 became symptom free at end of study HW effectively reduces oxidative stress RA symptoms sig improved with high HW Toru Ishibashi et. al. 2012 Med. Gas Res.
Quality of Life (QOF) Mood, Anxiety & Autonomic nerve function Double-blind
26 volunteers
13 males
13 females
34.4 +/- 9.9 yrs
HRW (600 ml/d) aluminium pouch 0.8 to 1.2 ppm; 300 ml/pouch or Placebo Water (PW) twice / day for 4 weeks 4 wks wash out Autonomic nerve function and cognitive test conducted Blood sample collected (to measure marker of inflammation & oxidative stress) Daily daytime activity measured HRW may reinforce QOF through effects that increase CNS functions involving mood, anxiety and autonomic nerve function
HRW able to cross blood brain barrier, offering high potential to reduce oxidative stress in brain & maintenance of CNS activity
Kei Mizuno
et. al 2017
Med. Gas Res.
Quality of Life (QOF) on patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumours Randomised
49 patients receiving radio- therapy for liver tumours 33 men & 16 women mean age: 58.6 yrs HRW (produced by magnesium stick) (0.55 – 0.65 mM) or Placebo water (PW) Reactive oxidative metabolites & biological antioxidant power in peripheral blood assessed Patients randomly assigned to gps to drink either HRW or PW; 1.5 L to 2 L/day for 6 wks Consumption of HRW for 6 wks reduced reactive oxygen metabolites in blood and maintained blood oxidation potential. QOF scores during radiotherapy sig improved in patients treated with HRW compared with patients receiving placebo water. No difference in tumour response between the two groups. Kang KM et. al
Med. Gas Res.